Image courtesy Computers, Environment and Urban Systems

HUTemporal dynamics of the impact of land use on modal disparity in commuting efficiency

Michal A. Niedzielski, Yujie Hu, Marcin Stepniak

Article first published online: 29 JUL 2020 Computers, Environment and Urban Systems

DOI: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2020.101523

ABSTRACT: Urban land use is known to affect commuting efficiency according to the excess commuting framework. However, most studies do not include temporal dynamics, and those that do, focus on decadal, yearly, or daily temporal resolutions. However, commuting is not a stationary spatial process. Since people leave home and start their jobs at different times of the day and since traffic congestion varies throughout the day, neglecting hourly dynamics can misestimate commuting efficiency in a region and lead to erroneous policy implications. Another important issue often overlooked in the past is the modal disparity in commuting efficiency and how it evolves during the day. To overcome these limitations, this research examines the commuting efficiency variation by car and public transport by six one-hour periods between 5 AM and 11 AM in Warsaw, Poland, using travel survey data and travel times generated from GPS-based big data for cars and from GTFS for public transport. We develop four different groups of modeling scenarios: no disaggregation, disaggregation by time, disaggregation by mode, and disaggregation by time and mode. Therefore, excess commuting and modal disparity metrics are applied for a total of 21 specific time and mode combinations. The results suggest that commuting efficiency is worst during the 8–9 AM period for both modes, and that public transport users are more efficient after 7 AM. Hourly variations in the excess commuting metrics imply that policy makers should examine ways to encourage flexible work hours to distribute work starts and to increase public transport frequencies in the off-peak.

Read the full publication at Computers, Environment and Urban Systems

Image courtesy Sustainability

HUAccessibility and Transportation Equity

Anzhelika Antipova, Salima Sultana, Yujie Hu, & James P. Rhudy, Jr.

Article first published online: 30 APR 2020 Sustainability

DOI: 10.3390/su12093611

ABSTRACT: It is an honor to write an Editorial to this Special Issue (SI) of Sustainability. The SI addresses aspects of accessibility and equity and provides lessons from studies in various settings including the United States, China, Sweden, Poland, Peru, and Portugal to name a few, which collectively can contribute to a more sustainable and equitable transportation globally.
Accessibility is strongly tied to policymaking and thus has been extensively studied in a number of disciplines including transportation, geography, and urban planning. Accessibility can be defined in a variety of ways, recognizing influence by physical, political, economic, and social factors. It measures, for example, the potential of various opportunities for interaction, and the relative ease for people in an area to reach opportunities [1]. Various forms of accessibility are closely interdependent including transport availability and connectivity, communication, spatial, social, economic, physical, and temporal accessibility; thus, many novel measures are often taken to study different aspects and conceptualizations of accessibility. For example, as Moscicka et al. (2019) in this SI note, data from mobile phones can be used to study resident mobility, GPS-based location systems provide data on urban vehicle traffic, and the OpenStreetMap-based geospatial data are useful in research on urban public transportation networks, bicycle trails, as well as for studies on the availability of transportation for people with mobility restrictions. Additionally, Google Maps can provide an accurate measurement of travel times for different travel modes for various times of the day.
In this introduction to the Special Issue of Sustainability on accessibility and equity in transportation, we attempt to synthesize key lessons from the issue’s fifteen substantive articles. These involve accessibility-related lessons including accessibility improvement in railways; optimizations of cross-border road accessibility, intercity networks, and pedestrian access to public transportation; as well as various aspects in urban transportation planning such as urban mobility, integration of bike-sharing, and electronically powered personal mobility vehicles. Other lessons cover equity-related aspects of transportation including the provision of the maximally full information to underserved populations to lessen the burden of unequitable access to urban facilities, ensuring socially equitable transportation planning and reducing burdens in commuting cost among low-income commuters. Finally, remaining lessons link equity back to accessibility with discussions on accessibility to public transport for disabled as well as visually impaired people, and equitable job access by poor commuters.

Read the full publication at Sustainability.

 

 

Description

The Department of Geography at the University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the UF Informatics Institute (UFII), invite applications for a full-time, nine-month, tenure-accruing position, at the level of Assistant Professor to begin August 16, 2019. The department seeks an outstanding candidate in Spatial Networks with expertise in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Geospatial Analysis, who will complement existing strengths in the department and across campus. The department seeks dynamic, highly innovative candidates and possible areas of focus include, but are not limited to, transmission and disease spread, transportation and mobility networks, social networks, complex networks, or big data. Specific interest would be in applying complex networks to real world problems and data. The candidate will make a substantial contribution to a research program in their own area of expertise within the field of networks. This program should link with the Informatics Institute, and the department’s long-term strategic goal in growing the field of Geographical Information Science (GISc). The candidate should also strengthen one or more of the department’s other focus areas: Medical Geography in Global Health, Earth System Science, and Global Environmental and Social Change.

Primary responsibilities include high-quality research in Spatial Networks, and a 2-2 teaching assignment in the Department of Geography, particularly developing introductory and advanced courses at both undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition, the candidate will be a member of UFII, whose mission is to develop and nurture integrative informatics research and education studies at the University of Florida. This institute brings together preeminent researchers that explore contemporary application areas across the university (e.g., those arising in science and medicine, the humanities, social sciences, and engineering), with UF experts developing the tools and technologies that support and complement these studies. Collaborative efforts nurtured by the UFII will yield insights into complex physical, natural, social, and engineered systems, aid decision-makers in diagnosing and treating diseases, and power the next generation of technologies that will position UF to meet emerging challenges in the coming decades. Applicants should have a strong record of research and scholarly activities within the area of Spatial Networks; experience and demonstrated commitment to excellence in teaching; and a proven ability to communicate effectively with students, professionals, and the general public. Additionally, potential to engage with the University of Florida’s ‘Beyond 120’ and ‘Quest’ Programs would be considered an advantage and should be addressed in the application materials, as well as links with existing units on campus – such as International Studies, Sustainability Studies, African-American Studies etc. if applicable.

The Department of Geography has 17 active faculty members, who conduct teaching and research in a broad spectrum across our four focus areas, which are Geospatial Analysis & Techniques, Medical Geography in Global Health, Earth System Science, and Global Environmental & Social Change. It offers BS/BA, MS/MA, and PhD degree tracks, including online and distance learning options for coursework. The department has two computer-lab classrooms and provides a high-speed on-line computing environment via UFAPPs, where any student and faculty can access software applications, such as ArcGIS, GeoDa, ENVI, ERDAS, MATLAB, and SPSS, from any computing device, from any location, at any time. High Performance Computing facilities are available on campus. Applicants are encouraged to visit the website to learn more about the Department of Geography. The vision of the UFII is to provide support for UF Faculty to collaborate toward the creation and application of information processing and decision-making systems, which are driven by the greatest challenges facing society today, leverage next-generation computing technology and analytical methods, and provide insights that position UF as a leader in ongoing research endeavors.

The Department particularly welcomes applicants who can contribute to a diverse and inclusive environment through their scholarship, teaching, mentoring, and professional service. The university and greater Gainesville communities enjoy a diversity of cultural events, restaurants, year-round outdoor recreational activities, and social opportunities. The University of Florida is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

Qualifications

The successful candidate should possess a doctoral degree in Geography, Computer Science, Information Science or a related field prior to August 15, 2019. Candidates must use geospatial techniques in their research – such as GIS, RS and/or spatial modeling – with a substantive focus on networks.

Application Instructions

For full consideration, applications must be submitted online at: http://apply.interfolio.com/56504 and must include: (1) a letter summarizing the applicant’s qualifications, ongoing research directions, and interests; (2) a complete curriculum vitae; (3) teaching/

research statement that discusses qualifications to teach courses in the stated area of expertise, and a discussion of what these courses might be; (4) a diversity statement that addresses past and/or potential contributions to diversity through teaching, research, and service; and (5) three confidential letters of recommendation. Review of applications will begin October 30, 2018 and will continue until the position is filled.

Inquiries about the position should be directed to the Search Committee Chair, Dr. Liang Mao, at liangmao@ufl.edu.

All candidates for employment are subject to a pre-employment screening which includes a review of criminal records, reference checks, and verification of education.

The selected candidate will be required to provide an official transcript to the hiring department upon hire. A transcript will not be considered “official” if a designation of “Issued to Student” is visible. Degrees earned from an educational institution outside of the United States require evaluation by a professional credentialing service provider approved by the National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES), which can be found at http://www.naces.org/.

The University of Florida is an equal opportunity institution dedicated to building a broadly diverse and inclusive faculty and staff. The University of Florida invites all qualified applicants, including minorities, women, veterans and individual with disabilities to apply. The University of Florida is a public institution and subject to all requirements under Florida Sunshine and Public Records laws. Searches are conducted in accordance with Florida’s Sunshine Law. If an accommodation due to disability is needed to apply for this position, please call (352) 392-2477 or the Florida Relay System at (800) 955-8771 (TDD)

Image courtesy Dr. Robert Walker
Image courtesy Dr. Robert Walker

WALKER – Response to Corridors for people, corridors for nature

Robert Walker, Eugenio Arima, Stephen Perz, Carlos Souza

eLetter first published online: 3 FEB 2016 Science

ABSTRACT:

An article in Science by Haddad points to the positive and negative impacts of building roads in developing regions. Transportation investments promote development, but they can also cause environmental degradation.

We agree with Haddad that ecological impacts can be mitigated by appropriate road design. As our research has shown for Amazonia, the initial road network conditions the pattern of landscape connectivity. In Brazil, the federal government implemented colonization projects with equidistant spacing between parallel roads, serendipitously creating forest corridors conducive to biodiversity conservation. By contrast, spontaneous occupations typically manifest irregular road networks with excessive branching. Our research thus provides a note of cautious optimism that planners can align social and ecological objectives in building roads.

However, cautious optimism must be tempered by considering the road builder. If government is responsible, networks can be designed with corridors in mind, and sensitive habitats can be avoided. Complications arise when private individuals build “unofficial” roads. Then, personalized spatial objectives and topography produce irregular road networks without habitat corridors. In the Brazilian Amazon, the unofficial road system (456,793 km) dominates the official system of federal and state highways (49,642 km) by an order of magnitude.

Read the full publication at Science