Shape and structure of traditional brickfields visible in high-resolution Google Earth imagery (top) and digitized brickfield locations overlaid on false color composite Landsat imagery across the study period (bottom). Image courtesy International Journal of Geo-Information.

MEHEDY, SOUTHWORTHMapping Time-Space Brickfield Development Dynamics in Peri-Urban Area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mohammad Mehedy Hassan, Levente Juhász, and Jane Southworth

Article first published online: 11 OCT 2019 International Journal of Geo-Information

DOI: 10.3390/ijgi8100447

ABSTRACT: Due to the high demand for cheap construction materials, clay-made brick manufacturing has become a thriving industry in Bangladesh, with manufacturing kilns heavily concentrated in the peripheries of larger cities and towns. These manufacturing sites, known as brickfields operate using centuries-old technologies which expel dust, ash, black smoke and other pollutants into the atmosphere. This in turn impacts the air quality of cities and their surroundings and may also have broader impacts on health, the environment, and potentially contribute to global climate change. Using remotely sensed Landsat imagery, this study identifies brickfield locations and areal expansion between 1990 and 2015 in Dhaka, and employs spatial statistics methods including quadrat analysis and Ripley’s K-function to analyze the spatial variation of brickfield locations. Finally, using nearest neighbor distance as density functions, the distance between brickfield locations and six major geographical features (i.e., urban, rural settlement, wetland, river, highway, and local road) were estimated to investigate the threat posed by the presence of such polluting brickfields nearby urban, infrastructures and other natural areas. Results show significant expansion of brickfields both in number and clusters between 1990 and 2015 with brickfields increasing in number from 247 to 917 (total growth rate 271%) across the Dhaka urban center. The results also reveal that brickfield locations are spatially clustered: 78% of brickfields are located on major riverbanks and 40% of the total are located in ecologically sensitive wetlands surrounding Dhaka. Additionally, the average distance from the brick manufacturing plant to the nearest urban area decreased from 1500 m to 500 m over the study period. This research highlights the increasing threats to the environment, human health, and the sustainability of the megacity Dhaka from brickfield expansion in the immediate peripheral areas of its urban center. Findings and methods presented in this study can facilitate data-driven decision making by government officials and city planners to formulate strategies for improved brick production technologies and decreased environmental impacts for this urban region in Bangladesh.

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ALENEZI, GOODMEHEDYSpatial pattern analysis of manufacturing industries in Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mohammad Mehedy Hassan, Meshari S. Alenezi, Ryan Z. Good

Article first published online: 01 JAN 2019 GeoJournal

DOI: 10.1007/s10708-018-9961-5

ABSTRACT: Understanding industrial clustering and its patterns of development are important steps in linking regional policy development, strategic decision making, business site management, and fostering a country’s economic growth. A considerable variety of common location-based cluster measures are available in practice, including area-based measures and a variety of indicators based on analyses of point data. This study uses the geostatistical approaches kernel density, multi-distance Reply’s-K, and spatial autocorrelation, both global Moran’s-I and local Moran’s-I, to assess the degree of spatial clustering of manufacturing locations in Keranignaj, located at the southern periphery of the urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results indicated a non-random pattern for all manufacturing locations in the study region. Small-scale industries such as garment manufacturing, metal, and brick making have a strong presence in Keranignaj. Expansion of such industries were highly associated with proximity to a river, while food processing, rubber and plastics manufacturing industries were clustered in relation to road proximity. The spatial association Global Moran’s-I with higher positive coefficient value indicates homogeneity, or spatial auto-correlation, exist in the industrial locations studied here. Local Moran’s-I, which documents regional clustering, has yielded a statistically significant manufacturing cluster (0.05 level) for the manufacturing areas of Zinjira, Kaliganj, Mirerbagh, and Chunkutia. Since cluster-based economic development has recently been an area of increasing interest for both developed and developing nations, the outcomes from this study provide an insight into spatial processes of industrial development in Bangladesh, and the Dhaka area in particular, enabling planners and policymakers to make rational, informed decisions and strengthening the economic growth and capacity for development of micro-industries clusters for the area studied here and the region beyond.

Read the full publication at GeoJournal